1. Culture and cultures: the ‘birth’ of the concept and its social statement. The several ‘types’ and notions of culture (political culture, business culture, intellectual culture, mass culture).
2. Cultural debates in Medieval Times (classical culture and Christianity; written and oral culture; intellectual debates and heresy).
3. Humanism and Reformations (issues between Renaissance humanist and the Church; Divergences and reformist suggestions).
4. Modern rationalism (from Descartes to the enlightenment philosophers: the role of reason, to school and debate).
5. The reason crisis and the laicization of thought.