This unit develops students’ knowledge and reflection on (in)equality in contemporary societies, fostering their ability to research and intervene on this domain. Theoretical notions as equality, exclusion, poverty, social class and citizenship are discussed, underlying their differences and inter-relations. The link between such phenomena and economic, cultural and political processes is explored, in multiple analytical scales. Recent reports on inequality patterns, in various dimensions, are analysed, comparing and explaining the evolution observed in Portugal and in other world regions. Actions to promote equality, inclusion and citizenship are identified. Students are supported and oriented towards the development of research and intervention activities on (in)equality in their life contexts.