Human activities are responsible for pollution in the three environmental vertices (water, air and soil) and also for the over exploitation of natural resources. These different types of pollution in the different environmental components represent a risk for human health, for the ecosystems and also for historical monuments. In this curricular unit the main objective is to present some subjects that are essential to the understanding of the problem of pollution, to the understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms and to present measures that should be implemented to reduce pollution. The solid residues are inevitably one of the major sources of pollution and its management is a problem that is urgent to tackle. The curricular unit also pretends to emphasize the need of a sustainable consumption of natural resources.